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Dry-cargo freighters are loaded and unloaded vertically, through cargo hatches on the top deck, or horizontally, through side, bow, or stern ports located above the level of the main deck. Most dry-cargo freighters have their own cargo-handling equipment, such as fixed or mobile cranes, booms, and conveyors. With horizontal loading, the cargo is transported by gravity along a ramp running from the dock to the ship or by means of forklifts or prime movers; the cargo is moved from one deck to another by elevators or hoists.
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